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Secondary models of delivery

Personal and Social Education

Secondary models of delivery

PSE is delivered in a number of ways. A coordinated, coherent programme of PSE should make efficient use of a range of models. This page highlights some of the matters that providers need to consider when deciding which model(s) best fits their particular needs.

Model 1: PSE delivered as an integrated element across a wide range of curriculum subject areas

Positives

  • Puts PSE in the context of learning as a whole.
  • Makes the relevance of individual subjects clearer to students.

Negatives

  • Very challenging to achieve consistency of approach.
  • Difficult to offer a consistent learning experience for all learners as PSE is delivered across a range of optional subjects at Key Stage 4 and post 16.

Issues

  • Need to keep subject teachers up to date with resources and methodologies.
  • How to track the progress of individual learners.
  • Need to maintain liaison, monitoring and evaluation.

Model 2: PSE delivered as part of the tutorial programme

Positives

  • Links PSE to other opportunities for personal development.
  • Enhances the role of tutors and builds relationships with learners.

Negatives

  • Reluctance of some tutors.
  • Lack of specialist knowledge and confidence.
  • Potential for lack of time and resources to deliver a coherent session.

Issues

  • Training for tutors regarding relevant methodologies.
  • Availability of the PSE coordinator to support tutors.
  • Consistency.

Model 3: PSE delivered by specialists in discrete sessions

Positives

  • Clear identity and context for learning.
  • Expert input/expertise available.
  • Planning, progression and evaluation are straightforward.

Negatives

  • Potential for PSE to be seen in isolation.
  • Expertise of specialists may be seen as excusing others from making their contributions.

Issues

  • Expertise may be heavily invested in a small team of people.
  • Management support to ensure adequate time is provided and specialists are available.

Model 4: PSE delivered in focused activities

Positives

  • Enhances profile of PSE.
  • Reinforces classroom based learning.
  • Links learning to ‘real life’ situations.
  • Generates a shared sense of purpose and associates PSE with excitement of special activities.

Negatives

  • Requires a significant amount of planning.
  • May not be able to guarantee delivery year on year.
  • May not be perceived by learners as being part of the curriculum.

Issues

  • What extra value do focused activities add to curricular learning.
  • How to achieve continuity of learning experiences.
  • How to recognise the achievement of individual learners.

Related Links

The PSE framework provides the foundation for a broad, balanced holistic approach to PSE.