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Census of population

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  • Release date: 25 February 2014
  • Period covered: 2011 (Census)
Every 10 years the nation sets aside one day for the Census - a count of all people and households. The last Census was held on Sunday 27 March 2011.

Characteristics of households in Wales

Release date: 25 February 2014

Key points

  • At 27 March 2011, the average household size in Wales was 2.3 persons with an average number of rooms of 5.7 per household and an average number of bedrooms of 2.9.
  • Around 11 per cent of all households at 27 March 2011 were lone parent families and a third were married or in civil partnerships.
  • There was a much higher percentage of younger Household Reference Persons (HRPs) i.e. those aged under 35, in the private rented sector than across all tenures. Conversely owner–occupier HRPs tended to be concentrated in the older age groups.
  • For over half (59 per cent) of all households the HRP was male. However social housing had a substantially higher percentage of female HRPs than was seen for all households at 54 per compared to 41 per cent across all tenures.
  • In around 3 per cent of all households the HRP was from a Black or Minority Ethnic (BME) background. The highest percentage of households with an HRP from a BME background was in the private rented sector at just under 8 per cent.
  • Christianity continued to the most common religion across all tenures, however less than half of HRPs in the private rented sector reported their religion as Christian.

A statistical bulletin presenting  information about the characteristics of households living in Wales particularly in relation to some of the ‘protected characteristics’ defined under the Equality Act 2010, such as age, gender, ethnic group and religion. The bulletin compares households living in different tenures including social housing, owner-occupied housing and private rented housing.

Welsh Language and the Labour Market

Release date: 29 November 2013

Key points

  • The employment rate for people aged 16 to 64 who said they could speak Welsh was 72.0 per cent compared with 67.3 per cent for those who could not speak Welsh.
  • People who said they could speak Welsh were most likely to work in education (16.2 per cent) and human health and social work activities (14.0 per cent). People who said they could not speak Welsh were most likely to work in the wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motor cycles (16.0 per cent) and also human health and social work activities (14.5 per cent).
  • Although 16.6 per cent of people in employment were Welsh speakers, in the agriculture, energy and water sector 29.5 per cent of people spoke Welsh. There was a similar position in education, where 26.7 per cent of people spoke Welsh. Those in the manufacturing industry were less likely to speak Welsh (10 per cent of those in employment).
  • 7.6 per cent of Welsh speakers are in Higher managerial administrative and professional occupations – this is the same proportion as for those who cannot speak Welsh. Those who can speak Welsh are more likely to be in lower managerial, administrative and professional occupations (23.0 per cent) compared with those who cannot speak Welsh (18.7 per cent). On the other hand, a higher proportion of non-Welsh speakers are in semi-routine or routine occupations – 30.3 per cent compared with 23.6 per cent.
  • 22.9 per cent of full time students are able to speak Welsh.

There will be further releases of Welsh language data from the 2011 Census over the next 12 months; information is available online in the 2011 Census prospectus.

Welsh language households and transmission

Release date: 28 June 2013

Key points

Key results on language transmission in the home are presented for one-family households with children aged 3-4 (this represented 92 per cent of 3-4 year olds in 2011). The transmission rate is defined as the proportion of 3-4 year olds within a family type able to speak Welsh.

Previous statistical bulletins have noted that the number of 3-4 year olds able to speak Welsh increased from 13,329 in 2001 to 16,495 in 2011 (an increase from 18.8 per cent to 23.3 per cent).

  • The transmission rate for couple households, where two adults could speak Welsh remained stable between 2001 and 2011 at around 82 per cent(1).
  • The transmission rate for couple households, where one adult could speak Welsh increased from 40 per cent in 2001 to 45 per cent in 2011.
  • The transmission rate for lone parent households, where one adult can speak Welsh was 53 per cent. This compares with 55 per cent in 2001.
  • The transmission rate for couple households with one adult able to speak Welsh was higher in cases where the Welsh speaking adult was a female rather than a male (49 and 40 per cent respectively). (New sentence added 12 July 2013).
  • The transmission rate for lone parent households with one adult able to speak Welsh was higher in cases where the Welsh speaking adult was a female  rather than a male (54 and 42 per cent respectively). (New sentence added 12 July 2013).
Welsh speakers by household size in 2011
  • There was a decrease in the proportion of households containing at least one person who could speak Welsh, from 28 per cent in 2001 to 26 per cent in 2011.
  • Of the over 555,000 people who could speak Welsh who lived in households, nearly 230,000 (41 per cent) lived either by themselves or in households where everyone could speak Welsh. In 2001, the equivalent figure was 45 per cent.
  • The proportion of households that were entirely Welsh-speaking decreased from 11.1 per cent in 2011 to 9.4 per cent in 2011.

The 2011 Census question asked ‘Can you understand, speak, read or write Welsh?’ – answered by ticking one or more of five boxes (one for each category and one for ‘None of these’) in any combination. This question was only asked in Wales, and results are presented for those aged 3 and over. The Census did not collect information on fluency levels or on frequency of use.

Note

(1) 2011 figures include children living in households where more than two adults were able to speak Welsh (eg two parents and older non-dependent sibling)

Analysis of the third release of data for Wales

Release date: 16 May 2013

Key points

  • The age profile of different ethnic groups living in Wales can be very different.
  • For some ethnic groups, Asian/Asian British, Black/Black British and other Whites, the largest groups are between 20 and 39 years old, but in the mixed ethnic group nearly half are under 20 years of age.
  • In 2011, nearly two-thirds (66 per cent, 2.0 million) of the residents of Wales expressed their national identity as Welsh. Of these 218,000 also reported that they considered themselves to be British.
  • In Wales people who describe themselves as belonging to a minority ethnic group are much more likely to say they are British than Welsh (except those from a mixed ethnic group).
  • People living in Wales in the 20 – 39 age group were more likely to record a non-British national identity than those in other age groups.
  • 94 per cent of the 3.06 million people living in Wales were born in the UK, with nearly 6 per cent born outside the UK. Of those from outside the UK the largest number were born in Europe (2.4 per cent) or Asia (1.6 per cent).
  • The age profile of residents of Wales that were born outside differs from the age profile of those that were born in Wales.
  • Very few of the Welsh population aged 80 or over were born outside the UK. Whilst nearly three-quarters of Welsh residents have a UK passport, people living in Wales are more likely (22.4 per cent) to have no passport than people living in England (16.5 per cent) or any of the regions in England.
  • People aged 25 to 34 living in Wales are much more likely than any other age group to have a language other than English or Welsh as their main language (with Polish being the commonest single language after English or Welsh).
  • Fewer that 1 percent of people over the age of 65 living in Wales reported having a main language which was not English or Welsh.
  • The proportion of people saying that they were in bad or very bad health was higher in Wales than in England for males and females and for all age groups.
  • In Wales the health of people providing unpaid care tended to be worse than that of other people. The pattern was the same in England.

Welsh language data - third release

Release date: 16 May 2013

Key points

  • In 2011, 23.3 per cent of the population aged 3 and over born in Wales were able to speak Welsh. This compares with 24.7 in 2001.
  • Of those not born in Wales, 8.0 per cent were able to speak Welsh. This compares with 9.0 in 2001.

Across local authorities, of those born in Wales, the proportion able to speak Welsh varied considerably from the overall proportion able to speak Welsh. The differences were greatest for the most Welsh speaking areas.

  • In Ceredigion, 74.6 per cent of the population born in Wales were able to speak Welsh (compared with 47.3 per cent of the overall population).
  • In Gwynedd, 88.7 per cent of the population born in Wales were able to speak Welsh (compared with 65.4 per cent of the overall population).
  • In the Isle of Anglesey, 78.2 per cent of the population born in Wales were able to speak Welsh (compared with 57.2 per cent of the overall population).
  • In Carmarthenshire, 54.0 per cent of the population born in Wales were able to speak Welsh (compared to 43.9 per cent of the overall population)

Note that students are counted at their term-time address, and are likely to account for a significant number of people born outside Wales.

  • The gap between the proportion of people born in Wales able to speak Welsh and the proportion of people born outside Wales able to speak Welsh varied considerably with age, with the  gap at its narrowest (3 percentage points) for children aged 3 to 15.  The gap is largest for the 16-24 year age group and the older age groups (for 16-24 year olds this is likely to be due to students).
  • 88.2 per cent of Welsh speakers were born in Wales, a slight decrease from 89.1 per cent in 2001.
  • A national identity was asked on the Census for the first time in 2011. Of those able to speak Welsh, 76.5 regarded themselves as having Welsh national identity only (compared with 52.8 per cent for non Welsh speakers).

Previous statistical bulletins highlighted the potential reasons for the overall decrease in the number and proportion of Welsh speakers, including demographic changes and migration. These also need to be borne in mind when comparing with 2001, by country of birth and other characteristics.

Welsh language data for small areas

Release date: 30 January 2013

Key points

  • In 2011, there were fewer electoral divisions with high proportions of people able to speak Welsh than in 2001.
  • In 2011, there were 157 electoral divisions (18 per cent) where more than half the population were able to speak Welsh (in the North and West), this is a decrease from 192 electoral divisions (22 per cent) in 2001.
  • The number of electoral divisions where more than 70 per cent of the population could speak Welsh decreased from 59 (7 per cent) in 2001 to 49 (6 per cent) in 2011, by 2011, all of these electoral divisions (apart from one in Conwy) were in Gwynedd or the Isle of Anglesey.
  • In 2011, there were no electoral divisions in Carmarthenshire where more than 70 per cent of the population could speak Welsh, in 2001, there were 5 such electoral divisions.

Release 2.2 of results for England and Wales

Release date: 30 January 2013

Tables of statistics for output area, ward, parish, and parliamentary constituency geographies (for England and Wales) have been published in this release. This means that data previously published at local authority level (for example, household composition, housing, ethnicity, religion, Welsh language skills, health status, long-term health problems, and employment) are available at a low geographical level.

On 27 March 2011, Wales had 3.1 million usual residents.

Key points

  • 97 per cent of usual residents in Wales aged three years and over reported English or Welsh as their main language in 2011.
  • 3 per cent of the population had a main language other than English or Welsh and three-quarters of that 3 per cent could speak English or Welsh well.
  • 19 per cent of usual residents in Wales aged three and over reported that they could speak Welsh.
  • In 2011, there were fewer electoral divisions with high proportions of people able to speak Welsh than in 2001.
  • After English and Welsh the next most reported main language in Wales was Polish (0.6 per cent, 17,000), followed by Arabic (0.2 per cent, 7,000)/
  • The percentage of usual residents living in a one-family married couple household where at least one household member was aged less than 65 decreased from 50 per cent, (1.4 million) in 2001 to 44 per cent (1.3 million) in 2011.
  • The percentage of usual residents living in a one-family cohabiting couple household where at least one household member was aged less than 65, increased from nine per cent (258,000) in 2001 to 12 per cent (367,000) in 2011.
  • In 2011 67 per cent of the working population travelled to work in a car or van to work in Wales.

Results for ethnicity, national identity and religion for Wales

Release date: 17 December 2012

The following summary is based on the answers to the questions on ethnicity, national identity, and religion for individuals (as distinct from the household questions).

Key points

  • Between 2001 and 2011 the percentage of the population of Wales describing their ethnic group as White British fell from 96.0 per cent to 93.2 per cent.
  • Non-white (including mixed) ethnic groups represented 4.0 per cent of the population in 2011, up from 2.1 per cent in 2001.
  • Those describing their ethnic group as Asian are the second largest ethnic group in Wales. Between 2001 and 2011 the percentage of the population of Wales describing their ethnic group as Asian doubled from 1.1 per cent (32,000) to 2.3 per cent (71,000).
  • Nearly two-thirds (66 per cent, 2.0 million) of the residents of Wales expressed their national identity as Welsh in 2011. Of these 218,000 also reported that they considered themselves to be British.
  • A third of the population of Wales (34.1 per cent) said that they had no Welsh identity.
  • Between 2001 and 2011 the percentage of the population of Wales giving their religion as Christian fell from 71.9 per cent to 57.6 per cent.
  • Between 2001 and 2011 the percentage of the population of Wales saying that they had no religion increased by nearly half a million (from 18.5 per cent to 32.1 per cent).

This Bulletin was not published at 9:30am due to ICT technical issues. As this constitutes a breach of the Code of Practice for Official Statistics, a report was issued to the UK Statistics Authority.

Second release of data for Wales

Release date: 11 December 2012

Key points

  • The usually resident population of Wales was 3.1 million in 2011, a five per cent increase since 2001. Nearly one in five (18 per cent, 563,000) of residents were aged 65 or over.
  • As was the case in 2001, in 2011 Wales had a higher percentage of residents with a long term health problem or disability, just under a quarter (23 per cent, 696,000), higher than any England region.
  • In 2011 nearly two thirds (66 per cent, 2.0 million) of the residents of Wales expressed their national identity as Welsh. Of these 218,000 also reported that they considered themselves to be British.
  • The usually resident population of Wales was 96 per cent (2.9 million) White in 2011, a higher percentage than any of the England regions.
  • Fifty eight per cent (1.8 million) of residents of Wales stated Christian as their religion in 2011, a 14 percentage point drop since 2001, a larger decrease than any of the England regions.  Almost one third (32 per cent, 983,000) of the population in Wales stated they had no religion in 2011, more than any of the England regions.
  • In 2011 five per cent (168,000) of people in Wales were born outside the UK, an increase of two percentage points on 2001 (three per cent, 92,000).
  • The proportion of people able to speak Welsh decreased from 20.8 per cent in 2001 to 19.0 per cent in 2011.
  • In 2011, a higher proportion of households in Wales (67 per cent, 879,000) owned their accommodation than in England (63 per cent, 14.0 million).
    The number of cars and vans available to households in Wales increased from 1.3 to 1.6 million between 2001 and 2011. In 2001 there were on average 11 cars per 10 households whereas in 2011 there were 12 cars per 10 households.
  • Nearly all households in Wales reported that they had central heating in 2011 (98 per cent, 1.3 million). This is an increase of six percentage points on 2001 (92 per cent, 1.1 million).
  • More people (12 per cent, 370,000) in Wales were caregivers than in any England region in 2011. Wales had higher percentages of people providing care for 20 to 49 hours, and 50 or more hours in 2011, than any England region; two per cent (54,000) and three per cent (104,000) respectively.
    One in four of the usually resident population in Wales aged 16 and over (26 per cent, 651,000) reported having no recognised qualifications in 2011. The second largest qualifications category in Wales in 2011 was Level 4 or above eg Bachelor’s degree or above (24 per cent, 614,000).

First results on the Welsh language

Release date: 11 December 2012

Key points

  • Between 2001 and 2011, there was a decrease in the number and proportion of people aged 3 and over able to speak Welsh in Wales. The decrease was due to demographic changes in the population (including fewer children, more older adults and the loss of older cohorts with higher levels of Welsh speakers), migration and changes to people’s skills between Censuses.
  • The proportion of people able to speak Welsh decreased from 20.8 per cent in 2001 to 19.0 per cent in 2011. Despite an increase in the size of the population, the number of Welsh speakers decreased from 582,000 in 2001 to 562,000 in 2011. Although lower than 2001, the proportion and number of Welsh speakers in 2011 were higher than the equivalent figures for 1991 (18.7 per cent and 508,000 people)(1).
  • Differences between 2001 and 2011 varied by age group – with considerable increases for younger children (aged 3-4), a slight increase for adults 20-44, and decreases for other age groups.

The 2011 Census question asked ‘Can you understand, speak, read or write Welsh?’ – answered by ticking one or more of five boxes (one for each category and one for ‘None of these’) in any combination. This question was only asked in Wales, and results are presented for those aged 3 and over. The Census did not collect information on fluency levels or on frequency of use.

Notes

(1) Note that the 1991 Census question asked ‘Do you…?’ rather than ‘Can you….?’

Second address estimates for local and unitary authorities in England and Wales

Release date: 31 October 012

Questions 5 and 6 of the 2011 Census form asked about second addresses.

Question 5 asked: “Do you stay at another address for more than 30 days a year?”

Question 6 asked: “What is that address?” The possible answers were:

  • armed forces base address
  • another address when working away from home
  • student’s home address
  • student’s term time address
  • another parent or guardian’s address
  • holiday home
  • other.

Most of the questions in the 2011 Census had been asked in earlier censuses but some were new: this is one of the new questions. This second address information was not collected in any previous Census: this is the first time this data is available.

Overall,  1,570,224 usual residents in England and Wales (2.8 per cent) listed themselves as using a second address for more than 30 days a year, and which was located in a local or unitary authority other than the one in which they usually lived. Of these, 12 per cent said that the second address was for work and 11 per cent for holiday purposes; the remaining 77 per cent included students, children of separated parents, and those classed as ‘other’.

In the list of local and unitary authorities with the twenty highest percentages of ‘usual residents elsewhere with a second address in this authority (for all reasons)’ four are in Wales. The city of London has the highest percentage (18.5 per cent) followed by the Isles of Scilly (12.1 per cent). The four in Wales are:

  • Gwynedd (9.9 per cent, 4th in the list)
  • Isle of Anglesey (7.3 per cent, 9th)
  • Pembrokeshire (6.9 per cent, 11th)
  • Ceredigion (6.7 per cent, 15th).

It is important to make the direction of the percentage clear. It means that of the people who do not usually live in Gwynedd,  12,012 people said that they had a second address in Gwynedd (for some reason), which is 9.9 per cent of the 121,874 usual residents of Gwynedd.

Almost half of all second addresses used for holidays (49 per cent) are within 20 local or unitary authorities. The local authorities with the largest number of second addresses used for holidays are Cornwall (10,169) and Gwynedd (7,784). Gwynedd has the highest proportion of second addresses that are used for holidays at 6.4 per cent of the usual resident population.

In the list of local and unitary authorities with the twenty highest percentages of ‘usual residents elsewhere with a holiday second address in this authority’ five are in Wales. The five in Wales are:

  • Gwynedd (6.4 per cent, 1st in the list)
  • Isle of Anglesey (4.1 per cent, 6th)
  • Pembrokeshire (3.5 per cent, 9th)
  • Ceredigion (3.0 per cent, 13th)
  • Conwy (2.8 per cent, 14th).

Again it is important to make the direction of the percentage clear. It means that of the people who do not usually live in Gwynedd,  7,784 people said that they had a holiday second address in Gwynedd, which is 6.4 per cent of the 121,874 usual residents of Gwynedd.

First results for Wales

Release date: 16 July 2012

Key points

  • On census night the population in Wales was 3.06 million. This was the largest the population had ever been.
  • The population grew by 153,000 in the 10 years since the last census, rising from 2.9 million in 2001, an increase of 5.3 per cent. This was the largest growth in the population since 1921.
  • While the difference between births and deaths led to a small increase in the population, migration accounted for over 90 per cent of the population increase between 2001 and 2011. This includes both international migration and migration from elsewhere within the UK.
  • The percentage of the population in Wales aged 65 and over was the highest seen in any census at over 18 per cent, a total of 563,000 people. This was an increase of 57,000 people in this age category since 2001, and an increase of 450,000 since 1911 when there were 113,000 people aged 65 and over.
  • There were 25,000 residents in Wales aged 90 and over in 2011, compared with 19,000 in 2001 and 700 in 1911.
  • In 2011, there were 178,000 children under five in Wales, 11,000 more than in 2001.
  • There were 1.3 million households in Wales on census night. The average household size was 2.3 residents per household, in 2011, the same as in England and unchanged from 2001. In 1911, households in England and Wales had an average of 4.3 residents, almost double the current total.
  • All areas of Wales saw population growth between 2001 and 2011 except Blaenau Gwent, which saw a small decline.
  • The unitary authorities with the largest percentage growth in population were Cardiff (12 per cent), Pembrokeshire (8 per cent), and Bridgend (8 per cent).

Contact

Tel: 029 2082 3220
Email: stats.popcensus@wales.gsi.gov.uk

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