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Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD)

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  • Release date: 20 March 2013
  • Period covered: 2011
  • Next update: 1 May 2014
This is the official 2011 measure of deprivation in small areas in Wales. It is a relative measure of concentrations of deprivation at the small area level.

Deprivation is a wider concept than poverty. Poverty means a lack of money. Deprivation refers to wider problems caused by a lack of resources and opportunities. Therefore, WIMD is constructed from eight different types of deprivation. These are:

  • income
  • housing
  • employment
  • access to services
  • education
  • health
  • community safety
  • physical environment.

Lower-Layer Super Output Areas

Wales is divided into 1,896 Lower-Layer Super Output Areas (LSOA) each having about 1,500 people. Deprivation ranks have been worked out for each of these areas: the most deprived LSOA is ranked 1, and the least deprived 1,896. One area has a higher deprivation rank than another if the proportion of people living there who are classed as deprived is higher. An area itself is not deprived: it is the circumstances and lifestyles of the people living there that affect its deprivation rank. And it is important to remember that not everyone living in a deprived area is deprived—and that not all deprived people live in deprived areas.

How WIMD is used

WIMD is suited to uses where the interest is in areas with high concentrations of deprivation. It is used to:

  • give an overall deprivation rank for each of the 1,896 LSOAs in Wales
  • give ranks for the separate deprivation domains for each of the LSOAs
  • compare the deprivation ranks for two or more of the LSOAs
  • compare two or more local authorities (or other groups of LSOAs) by looking at the proportion of the LSOAs in the local authority in the most deprived (say) ten per cent in all of Wales.

The index cannot be used to:

  • monitor change over time
  • say how much more deprived one area is than another
  • aggregate to different geographies by taking an average of the ranks of the LSOAs which make up that geography.

Revision notes

A small error was identified in the WIMD Indicator Analysis 2012: Communities First  StatsWales tables, for the Caerphilly Basin cluster, and therefore the All Communities First area values. This did not affect the main index, other cluster values, or the Communities First: a 2012 Baseline publication. These indicators were corrected on 20 March 2014.

An error was identified in the WIMD 2012 indicators affecting the low birth weight indicator. This does not affect WIMD 2011 or any other indicators. The error was due to the incorrect supply of data. These indicators were corrected on 25 February 2014.

An error was identified in the 2011 indicators affecting the death rate (standardised per 100,000 population). This does not affect the Health domain, main index or LSOA ndicator values, only those indicators at higher aggregated levels. These indicators were corrected on 12 December 2011.

A small error was identified in the 2011 indicators, affecting youth and adult offending rates only. This did not affect the community safety domain, main index or LSOA indicator values, only those indicators at higher aggregated levels. These indicators were corrected on 22 November 2011.

Statement on update to WIMD and Child Index

We have determined clear benefits in delaying publication of the next WIMD update, including the Child Index, beyond 2013, with 2014 providing the most optimal date.

Contact

Tel: 029 2082 3371
Email: stats.inclusion@wales.gsi.gov.uk

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